The essentiality of Bcl-2, PKC and proteasome-ubiquitin complex activations in the neuroprotective-antiapoptotic action of the anti-Parkinson drug, rasagiline
Youdim MB, Amit T, Falach-Yogev M,
Am OB, Maruyama W, Naoi M.
Eve Topf and National Parkinson Foundation Centers
of Excellence for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research,
Department of Pharmacology, Technion-Faculty of Medicine,
Efron Street, P.O. Box 9697, Haifa 31096, Israel.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Oct 15;66(8):1635


The anti-Parkinson drug, rasagiline, a irreversible propargyl possessing monoamine oxidase B inhibitor can protect neurons in vitro and in vivo from a variety of neurotoxic insults including SIN-1, glutamate, the parkinsonism inducing neurotoxin, N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, N-methyl-(R)-salsolinol and including beta amyloid protein. Recent studies have shown that rasagiline rapidly modulates intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival and death. Specifically rasagiline activates Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, protein kinase C (PKC) and reduces Bax in a variety of cells including PC-12 and neuroblastoma human dopamine derived SH-SY5Y cells. These enzymes play key roles in cellular events including modulation of apoptotic processes, neuronal plasticity and amyloid precursor protein processing. This pharmacological action of rasagiline is also associated with the prevention of the neurotoxin induced fall in mitochondrial membrane potential, opening of mitochondria permeability transition pore, activation of proteasome-ubiquitin complex, inhibition of cytochrome c release and prevention of caspase 3 activation, similar to the actions of cyclosporin A or Bcl-2 over expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Rasagiline and its various derivatives induces PKC dependent release of soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha and which is blocked by inhibitors of alpha-secretase, PKC and MAPK-dependent signaling. Structure-activity relationship with various propargyl containing derivatives of rasagiline including propargylamine itself has shown that the above described pharmacological action of these compounds resides in the propargylamine moiety. These results have provided a new understanding into the mechanism of neuroprotective actions of rasagiline and its anti-Alzheimer drug derivatives TV3326 and TV3279, which are relevant for therapy of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Rasagiline: structure
MAO-b inhibitors/PD
Anti-apoptotic activity
Molecular mechanisms
Rasagiline pharmacology
Induction of pro-survival genes
Rasagiline and the mitochondria
Antioxidant strategies against aging
Anti-Alzheimer/anti-Parkinson's drugs
Rasagiline versus selegiline metabolites
Rasagiline/ anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene family
Dual AChE and MAO inhibitors and Alzheimer's
Rasagiline v selegiline: neuronal survival effects
Rasagiline (Agilect) in early Parkinson's disease

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family